Rick Nevin
Correlation and Causation
    The relationship between preschool lead exposure and subsequent societal trends poses a specific variation of the question addressed by Bradford Hill (1965) in The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?:
 
"Our observations reveal an association between two variables, perfectly clear-cut and beyond what we would care to attribute to the play of chance.  What aspects of that association should we especially consider before deciding that the most likely interpretation of it is causation?"

    Strength

    Consistency

    Specificity

    Temporality

    Dose-Response

    Biological Plausibility

    Experimental Evidence

    Coherence

    Analogy

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